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主题: [转] 为什么美国儿童的阅读量是中国儿童的六倍?

[转] 为什么美国儿童的阅读量是中国儿童的六倍? 2013-12-20 22:04 周五 #1

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美国伊利诺大学阅读研究中心主任里查德.安德森教授主要从事儿童阅读研究,他曾深入地研究了中国儿童的课外阅读并与美国的儿童阅读做了比较,得出了如下结论:一个中国普通家庭和一个美国普通家庭为孩子提供阅读材料的经济能力大体相当,但是美国儿童的阅读量却是中国儿童的六倍。


产生如此巨大差异的原因何在呢?


首先,安德森教授认为主要原因在于中国父母给孩子选择的课外读物过于“超前”了。


在中国,适合二至八岁的儿童阅读的课外书籍数量本来就比美国少,而父母给孩子选择的课外阅读材料多是《唐诗三百首》及一些情节复杂的故事,大多数书籍的内容超过了孩子的认知水平,孩子难以流畅理解故事的内容,感受不到阅读的乐趣,所以花在阅读上的时间少,阅读量也就小了。


儿童读物应该分为教师指导孩子学习的书籍和专门给孩子阅读的书籍两种,也就是分为“精读”的书和“泛读”的书,中国孩子严重缺乏泛读读物。父母给孩子买的课外读物基本都属于精读类。中国孩子在幼儿园和小学里学课文就是“精读”的方式,课外读物还要“精读”,倒尽了他们的胃口。没有兴趣,阅读量自然就上不去。


分析中国父母给孩子选择“精读”读物的原因,在于中国父母比较注重阅读的短期效果,希望孩子读了一本书之后,就能牢牢掌握它的中心思想和深远意义,理解它的遣词造句、描写手法和意境,在父母眼里,孩子读完一本书都要说出个子午卯酉来才算没有白读,孩子能把看过的东西背下来最好,如果孩子最终能把读过的东西运用到写作文上,提高作文水平才算达到了阅读的终极目的。


实际上,阅读本身对人的影响是长远的、潜移默化的,不是读了几本书或者背了几本书就可以显现出来的,需要一个从量变到质变的过程。在孩子小时候,培养他们的读书兴趣和习惯,好比盖房子打地基,一时还看不出来房子的样子,但是地基打好了,后面想怎么盖就怎么盖。地基打不好,后面盖楼用的砖瓦再漂亮、昂贵都没有用。


学龄前和小学低年级是培养孩子读书习惯的关键时期,但是这一阶段的孩子认知水平和理解消化能力都不强,所以儿童阅读书籍的内容应当简单化、适合孩子口语表达,要多选择一些与他们生活相关的趣味短文和可供孩子们相互谈论的简单故事,才有利于引起他们的阅读兴趣。


最简单的办法就是父母领孩子到图书馆、书店去,让孩子自己选择要看的书,不要对他们的阅读书目指手画脚,不要以自己的标准为孩子做选择,要知道,他们只有喜欢一本书才会看得进去。


其次,安德森教授认为中国孩子阅读量比美国孩子小,还和中国父母陪孩子读书的时间上比美国父母少有关。


美国父母在孩子很小的时候,就会每天抽时间给孩子读书,直至孩子上学了,依然会保持每晚睡觉前给孩子读书的习惯。而中国父母在孩子小的时候更多的是花时间在教孩子认字上,而不是读书。孩子上学以后,很多中国父母肯花时间陪孩子写作业,却不肯花时间陪孩子读书,这其实是本末倒置了。孩子不完成作业老师会批评,他自己知道厉害关系,即使家长不陪不督促,他也要完成的,父母如果把功夫下在这儿,孩子有了依赖心,把写作业变成给父母老师写的了,慢慢地失去了对学习的兴趣不说,自己的事情自己负责的精神也难以培养起来。


孩子上学以后,看书的时间骤减,同时电视与电脑游戏也在争夺课后的时间,这一阶段读书习惯最容易被打破。所以在这一时期父母要把功夫花在陪孩子读书上,让孩子读书的兴趣和习惯能够保持下去。


中国父母可以向美国父母借鉴,每天在睡觉前抽出半小时的时间读书给孩子听,既密切了和孩子的关系,也容易坚持下去。
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[转] 为什么美国儿童的阅读量是中国儿童的六倍? 2013-12-20 23:05 周五 #2

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中国读书的设施少也是突出问题。带胖胖丫丫回国的一年,已经养成读书习惯的孩子们很痛苦,没有图书馆,书店里大批的考试教材和古典名著,别说英文原版书,就连中国流行的少儿读物都稀缺。

说到家长的导向,有几个在美国的朋友想帮助贫困的家乡,捐建了一个藏书万本的图书馆给学校。一年之后回学校看建图书馆的效果,发现书没人借,质问校长,校长说孩子们开始热情很高,结果借了书回家被家长打着回来还书,说正经功课不读,看什么闲书。

中国家长对教育的认知来源于病态的中国教育机制,巨大的生存压力,和贫困地区的信息不发达。
改变中国教育的路还很长,让我们从一点一滴做起,从我做起。
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[转] 为什么美国儿童的阅读量是中国儿童的六倍? 2018-07-06 09:02 周五 #3

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